Working With Words/Syllabication/Word Wall/Word Games, etc.

By the end of third grade children will be expected to recognize

and know well over 80,000 different words

maintains Adams ’90 and Carroll, Davies, & Richman ’71 quotes Connie Juel, The Reading Teacher  Vol. 53, No. 4

  1. Some psychologists believe children need to move in order to learn. A five minute  word wall activity at the beginning of a session could be just what the doctor recommends. Cheer words like cheer leaders. For tall letters have the children raise the arms up high. For baseline letters put their hands on their hips. For letters that dip below the base line, children squat; e.g, for the word help: arms up, hands on hips, arms up, and then squat.                                                                                                    The Word Walls serve many purposes such as a voc. review before rereading the story of the day/week. Word Walls serve as a resource during writing time.

  2. Consider purchasing  large portable poster boards if you do not have enough wall space for all the word walls you would like. The two ends fold in - or out- so that it can stand by itself. If you have no space to place it, bring the portable word wall out as you need it.

“Be a Mind Reader”

(The following ideas are from an unknown author.)

Clue Structure:

  1. 1.The secret word in my sentence is a word on the wall.

  2. 2. The secret word has ___________letters.

  3. 3.The sentence reads “__________.”

  4. 4.The secret word begins with________.

  5.                 Riddle, Riddle, Rhyme

  6. “I begin with (like)_________.

  7. I end with (like)__________

  8. I rhyme with ____________.

  9. What word am I?”

  10.                     Alliterations:

  11. “____ and ________like

  12. _____and ________ .”

  13. e.g. “Jesse and Jen like jellybeans and jam

  14.                       Clip Strips

  15. “I like _______.”

  16. “_____(name)________like _________”

  17. “I can _______.”

  18. “I can see ______.”

  19. “Do you like _______.”

  20. “Can you ______.”

Repeat: A mistake some teachers make is to send home a subset of the Dolch List or any list of words to study at home. Studying words in isolation is a waste of time. Words have meaning only in context. It, furthermore, takes away valuable time which parents need to read to their child, listen to their child read, and time the child needs to read independently by him/herself.  Teachers should be aware of the Dolch List so they can chose those words from the text to study and then  put back into the text. Most of the Dolch List can be decoded through meaningful context.

Children need to acquire some high-frequency words. That can be done in various ways:

“Can you find ___? Can you find that word in another place?” Practice writing the word via various media; e.g., in the air, tracing on ones arm, tracing with finger on the rug etc.

It has been said that in order to remember a word- for it to become part of a student’s sight  vocabulary- students need to see it a 100 times.

The average students in grades 3-12, gain an awareness of about 3,000 words per year- 10 per

day. (Nagy & Herman, 1971). Much voc. is learned through  extensive reading because it provides integration, repetition, and meaningful use (Nagy, 1988). New voc. is learned when it is linked to prior knowledge. Tip: Consequently, don’t send home lists of words for the children to memorize. The practice is meaningless and a waste of time.

Most words have meaning only in context.


  1. All About Learning Press/Homophones

  2. Homophones 4 Teachers

  3. Homophones UTube

  4. HomophonesiTunes

  5. Homophone Worksheets

Homophones on the Enchanted Learning Site

To, Too, or Two: Developing an Understanding of HomophonesNCTE

Marcy Zipke in Rdg. Teacher Vol.62 Oct. ’08 p 129 quotes Cairns “...the majority of the 1,000 most common words in English are multiply ambiguous....Cairns and her colleagues found that first and second graders' ability to detect lexical ambiguities...was a strong predictor of their reading scores in the subsequent grade.”

Lessons in making jokes using compounds; studying homonym; playing communication games such as Knock Knock jokes; writing riddles  and reading ambiguous stories significantly improves scores on standardized tests. Zipke states that in order to generate verbal humor, students need to understand multiple meanings, metaphors, and idioms; and “understand perspective shifts.”

Apropos Books:                                                                Amelia Bedelia books and                                   Arnold Lobel’s Mouse Soup

Read aloud the riddle a day and explain the ambiguity embedded in the riddle.

Plural - es - Changing f to v

  1. Change f to a v ABC Teach

  2. Onomatopoeia With Mr. Brown Can MOO! Can You?


Tip: On index cards, letter the two words that you are going to contract.  Leave enough space between  to fold the first word over the first letters of the second word - the letters that are dropped in making a contraction, e.g.


Then place the apostrophe. You can’t do it for all contractions such as doesn’t. Place families together in an envelop for easy retrieval.

  1. Contractions/Enchanted Learning/all inclusive

  2. BulletTreasure Cove - Contractions practice

  3. First Grade Parade: Snowflakes Falling& Contraction Surgery

  4. It’s Raining Resources Contraction Surgery


Tip: Use contrasting characters from a   story to teach antonyms & synonyms. Students list characteristics of both characters on separate slips of paper or the teacher prepared tags. With poster putty  on the back of the slips, the students place  the labels on one of the respective characters.  After all labels are tacked on,  the students, finds a contrary description / antonym on the opposing character. Line the descriptions in a column on each character placing them in close proximity for the students to observe that they line up as antonyms.

(Characters from Emily and Alice  were drawn by a student.)



  1. Synonyms: Enchanted Learning

  2. Synonyms and Antonyms / Brain POP jr.

  3. Antonyms and Synonyms U Tube


Working with Words

Constructing Words

Tip: Provide each student in the group with a plastic bag or cup containing  a set of letters needed to eventually form one multi-syllable word. The letters can be magnetic, made out of cardboard, regular computer paper, or purchased plastic ones.  Under the directives of the teacher the students start with a one syllable word and gradually build on until all the letters have been used. Have the students place all the letters given to them, in a row at the top edge of their desks. As they spell a word they pull/ slide down the letters as needed. Organization speeds up the activity. Individual white boards could also be used instead of individual letters.  5 to 10 minutes is all that is needed. Keep moving; this is just one of many other activities important for developing auditory 
discrimination along with  blending.

Word Study

Before, during, and after a guided lesson

  1. An Idea that Served Me Well           Vocabulary should be introduced and practiced in a meaningful context; consequently, before and during guided reading, study new concept and difficult words that are in the text.  Construct a paragraph using the new concept words; place it on a transparency with the new words deleted.   Place the new words on small cards- 3/4” by 2-3”. Laminate the paper before cutting the words apart. Place a tiny piece of magnet behind each word. (You can purchase strips of magnets from the hardware store.) Make the words just large enough so everyone in the group can see them. Place the magnetized words/miniature cards  below or to the side of the paragraph that is flashed onto the white magnetic board. Encourage the students to figure out where the new words belong in the paragraph. If flash cards are laminated and magnetized they can be quickly and easily moved around on the magnetic white board. Color code the miniature cards so they can be easily stored away for use with another group. 

  2. Have super large posters and murals displayed which reflect the theme of the stories.  It helps the students make connections.                                                 

  3. Teach structural analysis by projecting new words on a large white board making it easy to work with the words.  It is so easy to quickly syllabicate the new words and with the sweep of the eraser, remove the markings.( Four common prefixes: un,re, in, and dis) A magnetized white board with homemade magnetized new words is conducive to  alphabetizing, to finding similarities, and constructing a story with the new words. (Develop a template on the computer for new vocabulary words. Change the color for each set of words. Laminate the words for frequent use.)

    Individual white boards are great aids during word study time, also.  The overhead,  a large white magnetic board,  and magnetized homemade cards are very conducive to reinforcing everything from meaning to alphabetizing, developing parts of speech ...

  1. Play Bingo with the new words. Everyone folds a sheet of paper as you direct them- a block for each new voc.  word. The children write the new words in the blocks- one word in a block.  Give out markers/tokens and then ask them to find the word that means... or reverse the procedure.

  2. Act out the new words

    Keep homemade, magnetic, laminated words on the teacher’s white board.  Give the definition of a word and ask the children to write the word on their “lap slate.”  Tell them,  “Erase the three syllable words.”  or “Erase the word that means....”, “Erase the words that have a short e sound etc.” Keep the exercise short; don’t belabor the activity.

    Keeping the overhead on a low platform on wheels makes it easy to move and very accessible and conducive to the children’s participation.   

Tip: With both the prefixes and suffixes, letter

or type with the computer, the words. Fold back behind the base word the prefixes and suffixes. The prefix changes the meaning of the base word and the suffix changes the part of speech.


Tip: With each lesson, syllabicate a few of the new words - practice one rule at a time. Place a list of words with the same pattern on a transparency and spend a minute or two having the children in the group, syllabicate - draw a line between the syllables or the teacher solicits from the children where to syllabicate and the teacher does it. (If you flash the words onto the white board, the clean up is easy.) Giving the children worksheets for them to do it is a waste of time. Immediate feed back is important.

It should become second nature to a teacher to  recite the rule as the word is being divided. The children will soon be repeating the rule without having to drill them.  Reciting just the few words in lieu of the entire rule is sufficient.; e.g. ”Two consonants between two vowels, syllabicate.”

  1. BulletSyllabication

Great Strategies to Use in Developing Vocabulary

Listed in the order of most useful according to

Berne & Blachowicz

Analyzing word relationships and word parts

Using read-alouds and songs

Using games/play

Using discussion and think-alouds

Using word walls

Integration with content areas

Exposing students to difficult words

Systematic, explicit instruction

Making connections to background knowledge


Using context

Pre teaching vocabulary prior to reading.

The Reading Teacher Vol. 62, No.4 Dec.’2008/Jan. ‘2009

  1. eVocStrategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulaay by Dalton & Grishma posted by Jill 2/11

  1. 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary Rockets

  2. eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary The Reading Teacher

Games with Words

  1. Select several words from a text about to study. ( Some suggest using words from a text already read.) Put each word on a small slip of paper, and put the slips of paper in a cup. Each select a word and make a sketch that shows its meaning. Set a limit - possibly a minute.  Trade sketches and each has to guess the other’s word.

  1. •  12 fun Games from Go Fish to Snakes & Ladders, easy to print and customize sent in by Margo Edwards 9/1/15

  1. Word Theater - Like charades. Select several words from the text. Put each word on a small slip of paper, and put he slips of paper in a cup. Then play the game like Charades. A child selects a word and acts it out- no verbalization. Take turns guessing the word.

  1. 20 Questions- Select a word from a text already studied. Students are to guess the word in the teachers mind by asking up to 20 yes-or-no questions.

  1. Concentration-Use about 10 pairs of word cards: the same word on two cards, a word paired with a word family or definition, pairs of words from the same word family, synonyms, or some other logical pairing of words. Shuffle the cards and lay them upside down in a rectangle. Take turns turning up two cards at a time. If the cards match, the player keeps them. If they do not match, turn them back over. The winner is the one with the most cards when all cards are matched.

  1. Go Fish

Gather 9-12 cards per player. Each set should be related somehow;e.g., by family: down, town, brown;   by root: look, looks, looking. Deal seven cards to each player. Put the res t upside down i the center of the playing area. Players first look for matches in the cards they were dealt, which are laid face up. Then the game is played like Go Fish. Players take turns asking to others for cards they need to make matches; e.g., “Do you have a word from the -own family?” “Do you have a look word?” If the other person has such a word, it is given to the player who asked.   If not, the player is told to “Go Fish,” and the next player asks for cards. Play continues until someone is  out of cards,

  1. Word-Part Rummy

Cards for this game should be word parts (prefixes, suffixes, roots) that can go together to form words. Prepare about 10 cards per player, shuffle, deal five to each player, and place the remaining cards face down in a s tack.  Players look for cards that create  words and place them face up on the table.   Then they  take turns drawing cards form the pile.  If the drawn card does not make a match, the player discards a card, which the next player may take. Play continues until someone has matched all of his/her cards.

  1. Word War

This game is played like the card game War .  Each player turns  a cared over and says the word on it. The player whose word is longest or first in alphabetical order wins the cards.  In cases of ties, another card is turned over. Play continues until all cards have been turned over, and the player with the most cards wins.

Taken from “The Games Children Play” by Nancy Padak, and Timothy Rasinski, Reading Teacher, Vol. 62 #4 Dec. 2008/Jan 2009

  1. Game Zone/Language Games with computer - grammar, voc. & spellling -oodles

  2. Roy’s Interactive Reading Games

  3. FunBrain Game Finder

  4. What’s the Word

  1. BulletPBS Kids

  2. BulletGame goo - Learning that sticks!

  1. Antonyms/Educational Game Unique

  1. BulletInteractive Literacy Learning Games for Kids

Games with Sounds

  1. Word Ladder Puzzles

Move from one word to another, adding, subtracting, or changing a letter at a time.  The last word in the ladder is connected to the first word in some way. Ready made ladders can be duplicated.   Examples:

read (change a letter; this is a small, rounded piece of glass often used in jewelry?)

bead (subtract a letter; this is the opposite of good)

bad (add a letter; this means having no hair)

bald (change a letter; this is a round toy)

ball (change a letter; this is the opposite of short)

tall (change a letter; you pay this when you drive)

toll (change a letter; a screwdriver or hammer is one of these)

tool (change a letter; Yesterday we____a test.)

took (change a letter; this is what you read)


  1. What’s Wrong with this Picture/NIEHS KID’s PAGES

  1. Which One Doesn’t Belong?

Assemble sets of three words, two of which  share a feature;e.g., with beginning sounds, you could select cat, cake, and tree. With word families, you could select pin, tin, and tip. Say each set of words to the student/students and ask, “Which one doesn’t belong?” “Why?”

  1. Odd One Out: An online game for Junior Kids

  2. Which One Doesn’t Belong? Activity Page - printable by Scholastic

  3. Which One Doesn’t Belong? Lesson Plan

Riddles ByTrevor Zablocki

A student at Central Michigan University made his own riddle based website; clever!

  1. Riddles

Select four or five words from a text the students have read or words related to a word family. Develop a brief riddle for each; e.g., using the word fish, you could say, “I am a living creature. I live in the water. I rhyme with dish. What am I?

  1. Brain Food:Riddles

  2. Animal Riddles at Just Riddles and More

  3. Lesson Plans: Clap Syllable

  4. My Montessori Journey:How Many Claps?- A syllable counting activity

  5. Learn Parts of Speech by Playing Word Bags-third grade

  1. Grades Pre-K, K & 1 Tier 2 Vocabulary List Johnstown Schools

Dolch List are the high frequency words; many are not decodable-: they do not follow the phonetic rule:

Do not memorize them in isolation;  always introduce them via meaningful  story

  1. Dolch Sight Words by Mrs. Perkins- PDF files

  2. Dolch Words edHelper

  3. Jan Brett Dolch word List

  1. Dolch Word Story- This story contains the 220 Dolch Basic Sight Words The Best Thing in the World”          

Word Wall

- Each week choose 5 words with useful spelling

patterns for "Word of the Week” and place on the word wall - preferably from a story they are studying.

  1. -Develop several word walls such as the Help Wall- all the “glue words” /connectors that hold words together. Place them in alphabetical order.

Chant, Clap and Cheer Words

  1. Word Wall Activities/Mrs. Dunkerley

  1. Word Wall -abcteach

  1. Working with Words/Road to Reading

  1. Word Study with Henry & Mudge NCTE K-3

Tip: Vocabulary Development: reading  literature filled with colorful, musical, dynamic,  energizing words- daily to students, helps them visualize the story and expand their vocabulary at the same time. List those words and use them frequently in discussing, summarizing, retelling, writing, in word games...

Word Sort

  1. Word Sort Rubric

Constructing Words

Letter cards: Words to make Samples from

The Reading Teacher Oct. 1992 p 116


The teacher’s role during independent writing should not be that of a walking spelling dictionary for students. Encouraging children to say the word they want to write slowly, to hear the sequence of sounds, and to try to write the word fosters independence. Children soon realize there are alternative ways of getting to new words that do not depend on memorizing spelling or asking the teacher how to write a word. Additionally, as they observe the teacher during demonstrations of spelling strategies during interactive writing, their skill in segmenting the sounds and making letter/sound connections becomes stronger. Going from sounds to letters is easier for the child than letters to sounds (sic)(Clay, 1993). The first is done in a meaningful, authentic writing task that makes sense to the child. The second is often done in isolation which makes it more difficult for the child to apply to reading or writing.

Allowing for approximations in their spelling also encourages independence as the child can move on with the writing process. The teacher or other students can help later with spelling strategies or resources for finding needed words.

There are words that need to become sight words because they appear frequently in reading and are often needed in writing. These words can be taught during the interactive writing lesson as they come up. Not only are these core words necessary, but they are also needed by the child to generate other words. Clay (1993) asserts that, “As the core of known words builds in writing, and the high frequency words become known, these provide a series from which other words can be composed taking familiar bits from known words and getting to new words by analogy” (p. 244).

The teacher shows the children the new word as she slowly writes each sound. The children then practice “writing” it in the air and on the rug several times. When the word taught comes up again, it is reviewed in this multisensory way. Multiple exposures through repeated readings and opportunities to practice writing the new word increases familiarity. As the word is read over and over, it becomes more solid.

When students are ready to generate new words from known words, this is demonstrated on a whiteboard or Magadoodle or with magnetic letters showing how changing a part of a known word can generate new words (can/candy, see/trees, out/cloud). Once again, the teacher must demonstrate how this is a problem-solving strategy children is useful for reading and writing.

Reading the Room

A classroom with interactive writing charts displayed around the room surrounds children with meaningful and authentic print. These charts become resources for interactive writing lessons as the teacher and students make connections to previous learning related to a topic or to a word, letter, or cluster of letters.

Student names are useful when learning how words work. They contain common patterns found in many words. A classroom name chart serves to link sounds with letters or clusters of letters. The teacher provides clear demonstrations in how to use the name chart to find needed letters, sounds, or word parts for writing. Kindergarten begins with a chart with students’ first names. Gradually the chart is replaced with one listing first and last names. In first and second grade a chart with students’ first, middle, and last names provides most all the letter patterns found in words. Placing these charts close to the area where interactive writing lessons take place makes it easy for the teacher to demonstrate a link between a words needed in writing to a part in a name (Wiley, 1998).

A word wall (Cunningham, 1995) placed strategically near the interactive writing area allows further connections in finding known high frequency words or using these words to teach phonics through analogy (“’See’ has the double ‘ee’ that we need in the word ‘keep.’”). As new high frequency words are learned, they are added to the word wall at that time. Reading the room, a few charts each day, allows for more teaching opportunities and solidifies students’ word knowledge.

The reciprocity of reading and writing is clearly demonstrated when pools of knowledge in reading and writing are linked through teacher demonstrations (Clay, 1993). The classroom displays of interactive writing charts become clear records of related learning experiences in the interactive writing sessions useful to the students as they read and write.

Clay, M. (1993). Becoming literate. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clay, M. (1995). Reading recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clay, M. (1997). What did I write? Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Cunningham, P. M. (1995). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. New York: Harper Collins.


  1. Kindergarten Games

  2. Grade 1 Games 

  3. Grade 2 Games  

  4. Grade 3 Games  


  1. Apples for the Teacher Language Arts Games from soup to nuts

  1. PBS for Kids


  1. I Know That Language Arts Games

  1. Kindersite Ed. Games, Songs

  1. On-Line Games For Kids

  2. Crayola

  3. Fun Brain

  4. MES Games

  5. Scholastic

  6. Seussville

  7. Up To Ten

4 Charts from “Word Detectives” Reading Teacher A Goodwin, M Lipsky, S Ahn 4/2012

Inspiration software, Inc. The Visual Way to Explore and Understand Words, Numbers and Conepts

Developing Content Words by Heather Nord ,Harvard Ed. Letter May/June /08

Use six books related to a theme. Target 60 key words during a four-week unit.

Teacher reads each book four times, using a different approach each time:

  1. -First time, highlight targeted vocabulary words and post them on cards.

  2. -Second time reconstruct the story with children helping to retell.

  3. -Third time, the teacher leaves out words, which children fill in orally.

  4. -Fourth time, children act out the story.

Experience the words, the concepts, the story itself.

Tiered Words ( Harvard Ed. Letter May /June 2008)

Tier 1: Words children pick up on their own without instruction.

Tier 2: words important to academic success that must be explicitly taught

Tier3: Words more technical in nature associated with special fields

  1. Vocabulary is divided into three tiers for instruction

Voc. Development from PreK-3 by Daniel Pallante

Preschool: Teachers should pick out  4 to 5 Tier 2 words a week that relate to “big-time” concepts like “ocean,”

Kindergarten: Learn how words can be taken apart or built from smaller pieces, and how that changes what they mean.  Concentrate on 4 to 5 words a week.

First Grade: Draw inferences around 6 to 7  target words each week.

Second: Develop dictionary skill around 7 to 10 target words a week; begin to work with multiple meanings

Third: Think about which of a word;s multiple meaning may be most relevant for a particular discussion.

For all students prK -3  Teachers should use interactive strategies to engage students. When encountering a word with multiple meanings the teacher use the word in appropriate context and inappropriate context and the students choose the correct context.

Handbook of Early Literacy Research                                        Edited by  Susan B Neuman and David K. Dickinson

TABLE 4.2. Six Principles of Word Learning

1. Frequency matters: Children learn the words that they hear the most.

2. Make it interesting: Children learn words for things and events that interest them.

3. Make it responsive: Interactive and responsive contexts rather than passive contexts favor vocabulary learning.

4. Focus on meaning: Children learn words best in meaningful contexts.

5. Be clear: Children need clear information about word meaning.

6. Beyond the word: Vocabulary learning and grammatical development are reciprocal processes.

Homographs are words of like spelling but with more than one meaning. A homograph that is also pronounced differently is a heteronym.  

1) The bandage was
wound around the wound.
2) The farm was used to
produce produce.
3) The dump was so full that it had to
refuse more refuse.  
4) We must
polish the Polish furniture..
5) He could
lead if he would get the lead out.
6) The soldier decided to
desert his dessert in the desert..
7) Since there is no time like the
present, he thought it was time to present the present.  
8) A
bass was painted on the head of the bass drum.
9) When shot at, the
dove dove into the bushes.
10) I did not
object to the object.  
11) The insurance was
invalid for the invalid.
12) There was a
row among the oarsmen about how to row.
13) They were too
close to the door to close it.
14) The buck
does funny things when the does are present.   
15) A seamstress and a
sewer fell down into a sewer line.
16) To help with planting, the farmer taught his
sow to sow.
17) The
wind was too strong to wind the sail.
18) Upon seeing the
tear in the painting I shed a tear..
19) I had to
subject the subject to a series of tests.
20) How can I
intimate this to my most intimate friend?  

Let's face it - English is a crazy language. There is no egg in eggplant, nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple. English muffins weren't invented in England or French fries in France . Sweetmeats are candies while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat. We take English for granted. But if we explore its paradoxes, we find that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square and a guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig.


And why is it that writers write but fingers don't fing, grocers don't groce and hammers don't ham? If the plural of tooth is teeth, why isn't the plural of booth, beeth? One goose, 2 geese. So one moose, 2 meese? One index, 2 indices? Doesn't it seem crazy that you can make amends but not one amend? If you have a bunch of odds and ends and get rid of all but one of them, what do you call it?


If teachers taught, why didn't preachers praught? If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a humanitarian eat? Sometimes I think all the English speakers should be committed to an asylum for the verbally insane. In what language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet that smell?


How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites? You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which your house can burn up as it burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it out and in which, an alarm goes off by going on.


English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects the creativity of the human race, which, of course, is not a race at all. That is why, when the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible.


PS. - Why doesn't 'Buick' rhyme with 'quick'?

You lovers of the English language might enjoy this.


There is a two-letter word that perhaps has more meanings than any other two-letter word, and that is 'UP.'
It's easy to understand UP , meaning toward the sky or at the top of the list, but when we awaken in the morning, why do we wake UP ?   At a meeting, why does a topic come UP ?Why do we speak UP and why are the officers UP for election and why is it UP to the secretary to write   UP a report? We call UP our friends.
And we use it to brighten
UP a room, polish UP the silver; we warm UP the leftovers and clean UP the kitchen.  
We lock
UP the house and some guys fix UP the old car.  
At other times the little word has real special meaning.
People stir
UP trouble, line UP for tickets, work UP an appetite, and think UP   excuses.
To be dressed is one thing, but to be dressed
UP   is special .
A drain must be opened
UP because it is stopped UP .  
We open UP a store in the morning but we close it UP at night.
We seem to be pretty mixed UP about UP !
To be knowledgeable about the proper uses of UP , look the word UP in the dictionary.
In a desk-sized dictionary, it takes
UP almost 1/4th of the page and can add UP to about thirty definitions.
If you are
UP to it, you might try building UP a list of the many ways UP is used.
It will take
UP a lot of your time, but if you don't give UP , you may wind UP with a hundred or more.  
When it threatens to rain, we say it is clouding
UP .  
When the sun comes out we say it is clearing UP .
When it rains, it wets the earth and often messes things UP .
When it doesn't rain for awhile, things dry UP .
One could go on and on, but I'll wrap it
UP ,
for now my time is UP , is time to shut UP ! more thing:

What is the first thing you do in the morning and the last thing you do at night






Syllabication Rules

Onset & Rimes


Sight Words

All grammar rules and punctuation are best taught in the context of authentic writing experiences rather than in isolation. Interactive writing focusing on a particular skill is a great means to accomplish the goal. Name the skill: compound sentences, indention for paragraphs, capitalization rules, punctuation rules, spicy verbs, specific nouns, complete and incomplete sentences, contractions, possessives, pluralization rules, plural possessives, and onomatopoeia  all can be taught via shared writing. While students take turns writing one letter, word, or sentence at a time, the teacher and students interact and direct the student what to write. Refer to quotation marks as “Talking marks.”At the end of a week a summary can be made of the week’s learning and sent home for the caregiver/parents.

  1. Brian P. Cleary teaches grammar and part of speech via poetry. Check out his books

  2. Language Arts, Parts of Speech, & Grammar Poems

  3. Comparison of adjectives

  4. Comparison of Adverbs

  5. ProTeacher Dictionary

  6. Grammar Blasts/Houghton Mifflin

  7. Grammar   Slammer

  8. Language Skill Builder Interactive Site for 3rd I4C

  9. Language Arts Presentations- free presentations in Power Point

  10. Crash and Contract / contractions/Ato Z  Teacher Stuff


  1. Kinds of Sentences / ESL in Canada    

  2. Sentence Structure/Instructor Web

  3. Kinds of Sentences /kwizNet Learning System

Silent e Rule to music/Garden of Praise

Dropping the final e
The penguins' habitat is freezing -
You'll like it there
If you don't mind sneezing,
(I, myself, don't find it pleasing.)

In January
it's so nice
while slipping
on the sliding ice
to sip hot chicken soup
with rice.
Sipping once
sipping twice
sipping chicken soup
with rice.
  1. BulletInteractive Literacy Learning Games for Kids There are plentiy of ways to make reading and writing fun. sent in by  Kate Cutler 4/ 2019

Sylabication Information cont.

Borreguita and the Coyote

Note stories along the side.

  1. Doctor DeSoto   - don't miss   Read all of William Steig I love his books!

Borreguita and the Coyote is known as a trickster story.


4. Vowel Rule 4: When there is only one vowel in a word or syllable and the vowel comes at the end, the vowel is usually long.

         ex: why, no, he


5. Vowel Rule 5: When a is followed by u, w, r, ll, and lt in the same syllable, it often has the third sound of a, the Italian a.

         ex: haul, pause, scar, fall, pawn, fault