Developing Higher Order Thinking Skills and

the Language Arts Standards with Varied Genre

I developed and implemented the following lessons:


                           Little Red Hen Lesson   Gr. 1


Standard # 1 Information and Understanding

Standard # Analysis & Evaluation

Using the narrative story structure, the children will share prior knowledge about Little Red Hen.

Children will acquire knowledge of the wheat cycle and indirectly of the four seasons.

Children will develop the following higher order thinking skills; sequencing, analyzing, synthesizing, determining cause & effect, and evaluating.

Children will comprehend the concept of community.

ProcedurePlant a Literacy Garden

1. With kindergarten use a big book and children chiming in on repetitive

parts. With first graders use individual books. Bridge prior knowledge ( application) of the Little Red Hen by filling in outline of a narrative story.

  1. 2.Show grains of wheat ( from a farm or florist shop.)

  2. 3.State the purpose of reading Little Red Hen by posing the following questions: Are the characters in this version the same as the version they are familiar with?  Are they good characters? Do you like them? Why? (Evaluation)

  3. 4. Analyze & evaluate characters’ behaviors: Using two Venn diagrams, make analogies between the abstract personal and social aspects of the children’s lives.



        How are the characters in the story similar to  the elements of nature such as rain, sun, soil, and the seed with regard to life nourishing and interdependence?

5. Develop the concept of cause and effect (knowledge) using the commonalities of the two diagrams, one diagram being negative and the other being positive, e.g., helping and sharing causes harmony, happiness, togetherness; selfishness causes loneliness, struggle, and unhappiness.


                 Negative                                          Positive    

Selfishness causing loneliness          Helping and sharing causing  struggle, and       unhappiness                                        harmony, happiness, &                  

Lazy                                                    togetherness

Not  hard working


  1. 6.Read the text the second time and observe the cycle of the wheat; compare (analysis) with a chart what a wheat farmer actually does.

  2. For Kindergarten Korner/Season Freebies

  3. 7.Summarize story (a sub skill of synthesis.)

  4. 8.Standard # 2 Literary Response

  5. Respond in writing: Which character did you like best? Why?

  6. 9.Read a sequel; children with shared writing session, write a sequel.

  1. 10.Standard #4 Social Interaction

  2. Respond by dramatizing the story.

  3. 11.Sing the Little Red Hen Song

  4. 12.Via the Computer listen to another version of Little Red Hen.

  5. 13. Via the Computer listen to Pumpkin Pumpkin

  6. 14. Props

  7. 15.Other Lessons Plans for Little Red Hen :

  8. Enchanted Learning

  9. After School Exchange with Evaluation at the end

  10. A Book-A-Week Classroom Instuction           

  11. Learning to Give/Detroit  Emphasis on Social Behavior

  12. Character - emphasis on characterization & story elements by Brain Pops

  13.      Little Half Chick SPEAKABPOO

  14.      Little Red Hen SPEAKABPOO


We Are Best Friends  Level 14  Gr. 1.7  H


  1. 1. Enjo
    y the story
  2. 2.Analyze the concept of friendship

  3. 3.Compare and contrast (analysis) behavior of the characters

  4. 4.Evaluate behavior.


  1. 1.Talk about their best friend

  2. 2.Develop new voc.

  3. 3.Read We Are Best Friends silently. A small chair on wheels is great to use to scoot around to help students in need. Depending upon the word will depend if the student is asked to skip the word and read to the end of the sentence and then think what would make sense with the first sound, look at just the root word,find the problem word wall, etc. Scroll to bottom for a complete list ways to support.

  4. 4.Draw an analogy (analysis) between the ingredients of a cake and the ingredients of friendship.

  5. 5.With a Venn Diagram compare and contrast (analysis) the characters.

  6. Place one character in one circle and the other character in the other circle. Where they intersect is what they have in common.

  7. 6.Evaluate the characters; e.g.; Do you like....?   What were some of the good things they did?  Would you like to be their friend? etc.

  8. 7. Compare (analysis) with a Venn Diagram, the books below with We Are Best Friends.

  9. 8.Sing the song Best of Friends. Read the lyrics to reinforce the various combinations of long a sound.  Read lyrics and use to reinforce the long e sound. Or use a poem from  Friendship:Poems for Kids/ Academy of America Poets

  10. 9.Write about your friend. What do you like about him/her. Use the following Friendship Chart    

  11. 10. Enjoy other related stories:

  12.   Best Friends by Miriam Cohen Level 24 Gr. 2.7

  13.   My Best Friend by Pat Hutchins,

  14.   Best Friends for Frances by Russell Hoban Level 24 Gr. 2.7



The Great Kapok Tree

by Lynn Cherry- expository- Level 35 Gr. 3.8

    In Cherry’s The Great Kapok Tree a man goes to the forest to cut down a tree. When he takes a rest from chopping down a tree and falls asleep, a member of each living community that live in the tree visits him in his dream relating compelling reasons for letting the tree stand. The most compelling reason being that the tree supplies the world with oxygen.


  1. 1.Reading The Great Kapok Tree the children will develop the concept of ecology (comprehension) and the following higher order thinking skills:

  2.     a. Knowledge of the rain forest

  3.     b. Application- using prior knowledge to predict

  4.     c. Analysis- comparing and contrasting two lists on a KWL chart: the list predicting/telling what they think the rain forest is and a list stating what they learn.

  5.     d. Synthesis- discussing the function of the rain forest

  6.      e. Evaluate- stating the importance of rain forests

2. Children will manifest competency in using decoding skills when reading silently the text,


  1. 1.Children will list what they know about a rain forest and list their predictions using the KWL chart. (knowledge)

  2. 2.Children will study key words through a prepared paragraph. The paragraph will be placed on a transparency which in turn will be flashed on a magnetic white board via  the overhead projector. Key words will be omitted and the children will figure out which words go in what blanks. The key words will be typed and laminated with a magnets  behind so the words can easily be moved into the correct blanks. Those laminated words will be alphabetized, categorized, related words will be clustered together, etc. More ideas are listed on the page Working with Words.

  3. They will read a definition of ecology. (knowledge)

  4. 3.They will confirm (application) their predictions by reading the text silently. While the children are reading the story silently the teacher will observe their application of skills: phonetic, context & picture clues. Individual assistance will be  given as the need arises. (knowledge)

  5. 4.Children will analyze the list of predictions and judge if  the predictions were stated in the book as facts. (analysis)

  6. 5.In the process of summarizing, the children will recall the functions of rain forests and state why rain forests are important to people. (synthesis and evaluation)

  7. 6.Children will reread with a partner.

  8. 7.Children will be divided into 5 groups: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Each group will fill in the Observation Chart for their area. The class will fill in the chart for the Rain Forest.

  9. 8. During writers workshop, the class will  write a class poem using the structure suggested How to Write a Poem.e.g., a sensory poem

  10. Rain Forest
    In the rain forest  I see ...
    In the rain forest  I hear...
    In the rain forest  I feel ...
    In  the rain forest I taste ...
    In the rain forest I smell ...

  11. 6.Via the computer listen to Trees.

  12. 7.Engage in expository writing;

  13. 8.Build an Online Habitat

  14. 9.Rainforest Animals

  15. 10.The Great Kapok Tree:Teaching About Conflict in Literature

  16. 11.The Great Kapok Tree/ Teacher CyberGuide

  17. 12.The Great Kapok Tree/ Carol Hurst’s Site

  18. 13.  The Great Kapok Tree: Tale of the Amazon Rain Forest

The Empty Pot    Gr. 3

The Empty Pot is about a Chinese Emperor seeking a successor. He puts children through a test. Whoever grows the prettiest flower form the seed he gives them, will be his successor.  Each child is given a seed; all come back after a year with exotic flowers- all but one little. The emperor is sad when he see the flowers but happy when he see the boy with the empty pot- he found his successor; one who was honest. The seeds the emperor gave out had been cooked.


  1. 1.Children will analyze and demonstrate (application) knowledge of the story: main characters, the problem/ challenge, and solution/lesson taught.

  2. 2.Children will transfer learned decoding skills while reading silently


  1. 1.Develop background retrieving prior knowledge of a similar fable: Emperor’s New Clothes.

  2. 2.Develop meaning of new words; write, chant, clap words

  3. 3.Read and analyze the problem/challenge and how it was solved/resolved. While the children are reading silently, they are to be assisted in transferring skills as the need arises.

  4. 4.Evaluate the story in regards to honesty and justice.

  5. 5.Compare (analysis) similarities with the Emperor’s New Clothes via the Venn Diagram.

  6. 6.Analyze their own behavior and compare (application) it with the little boy in the story via the Venn Diagram. (Place the title of the book in one circle and the word YOU in the second circle. The intersection is what they have in common.)

  7. 7.Write about what you liked about the boy.

  8. 8. If the season is right, this story could be a springboard for planting their own flower seed.

or Wolf Talk


Intended Learning Outcomes

Listening and reading; speaking and writing

Standard 1. Language for Information and Understanding

  1. 1. Further develop the concept of wolf by comparing it to the coyote and fox.

  2. 2. Reinforce understanding (comprehension) of the word communicate.

  3. 3.Comprehension and Interpretation: the children will compare the wolf and its needs to their own pets and then to their own needs.

  4. 4.The children will interpret (comprehension) pictures and answer guided questions.

  5. 5.Children will develop the following strategies:

  6.     a. Use picture clues to help them understand how wolves communicate with one another.

  7.     b. Picture in your mind (Imaging) what the author is telling you

  8. 6. Phonemic awareness: listen to the sound of ou/ow and build new words with the vowel digraph.

  9. Standard 2: Literary Response and Expression

  10. 1. Children will read the story and then map the knowledge learned

  11. 2. Children will compare (analysis) their needs to that of the wolf.

  12. 3. The children will ask questions about the facts (knowledge) in the story and then answer he questions.

  13. 4. The children will summarize (synthesis) the information with a 4 W poem.

   Standard 3. Critical Analysis and Evaluation

  1. 1. Children will activate prior knowledge by relating how their pet                

  2. animals communicate with people when they are hungry, hurt, or need to go outside.

    2. They will apply this prior knowledge by predicting how wolves        


  1. 3. Children will analyze the characteristics and needs of the wolf and compare them to their own needs.

  2. 4. The children will use the conceptual tools of semantics, syntax, graphophonics, and prior knowledge to establish meaning.

  3. 5. The children will synthesis- summarize what they learned by telling a partner.

    Standard 4: Social Interaction

    1. The children will discuss the behavior of the wolves and compare          

    (analysis) it to their own pets and then compare them to themselves

  1. 2. Children will reread with a partner.


  1. 1.Sing the poem “The Wheels on the Bus” and note the ound sound

  2. and have the students make it with magnetic letters; use  f, gr, p, s.

  3. 2.Build brown with magnetic letters and change br to d; dr, t, cl, fr, to an h. Change the n to an l to end up with howl.

  4. 3.Introduce Wolves with a KWL chart and list what they know.

  5. a. How do their pets communicate with people when they are hungry, hurt, or need to go outside.

  6. b. Do you think that animals that live in the wild communicate with each other? How?

  7. c. Look at the pictures in the book. Ask the children to predict (application) what they think the wolves are trying to say with their gestures in each picture.

  8. 4.Read the story silently and find out exactly what scientists think wolves say to each other. (knowledge)

  9. One thing I want you to think about as you read: Are we in anyway like the wolves?

5. Complete the KWL chart

6. Reread with a partner.

  1. 7. After the discussion write a paragraph about how we are like the wolves you read about.

  2. 8.Go on a Wolf Hunt change the word bear to wolf. Turn it into a chant/rap. Have your artists draw a small picture of each hurdle to over come.

  3. Laminate the picture and place a magnet behind each. As you chant the words place the “hurdles” one by one under each other. This will help those with a poor memory and will help them to reverse the procedure. Patting/slapping one’s knee adds good sound effects and rhythm. The movement is just what the doctor ordered to help the mind learn.


Bloom’s Taxonomy

From day one start encouraging students to become active learners by developing higher order thinking skills: pretending, imaging, reflecting, observing, comparing, contrasting, solving problems, predicting, using deductive reasoning to pull together key elements; reviewing and responding critically to and judging; using ideas, processes, or skills in new situations; creating new ideas...

John Dewey stated, Every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination.” 

 Higher Order Thinking Skills; each illustrated via video/ Into the Book/Wis.Ed’l Com.
Picture Books for teaching higher order thinking skills Christina Dietrich
Critical Thinking Skills Scoring Rubric
A Model of the National Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills
5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos TedEd lessons
How to Encourage Higher Order Thinking Skills NCTE 2017

                       Five  Little Ducks by Pamala Paparone Emergent Reader

Intended Learning Outcomes for :

Listening and reading; speaking and writing;

Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding

    1. Further develop the concept of pond

    2. Reinforce understanding and recognition of new words. (knowledge)

Write, chant, clap words                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. Comprehension and Interpretation: the children will answer guided questions.

    4. Children will develop the following strategies:

            a. Guess what might happen next

            b. Use picture clues to help them understand the story

            c. Think about the order in which things happen; reinforce position words.

  1. 5.Phonics: reinforce auditory discrimination of final consonant l, k, x, m, d ; develop auditory discrimination and visual recognition of ick; review short I

Standard 2: Literary Response and Expression

    Children will sing an action song related to the story called “Six Little Ducks” along with the movements. (Singing helps develop phonemic awareness- matching pitches.)

    Sing:  6 Little Ducks with actions

6 Little Ducks that I once knew; fat ones, fair ones, thin ones too.

But the one little duck with the feather on his back,

He led the others with a Quack, Quack, Quack.

Quack, Quack, Quack--Quack, Quack, Quack.

He led the others with a Quack, Quack, Quack.

Down to the meadow they would go, wibble, wobble, wibble, wobble,

Ho hum ho.

And the one little duck with the feather on his back,

He led the others with a Quack, Quack, Quack.

Quack, Quack, Quack--Quack, Quack, Quack.

He led the others with a Quack, Quack, Quack.

Home from the meadow they would go, wibble, wobble, wibble, wobble,

To and fro.

And the one little duck with the feather on his back,

He led the others with a Quack, Quack, Quack.

Quack, Quack, Quack - Quack, Quack, Quack.

He led the others with a Quack, Quack, Quack.

    Children will discuss-the interaction of the characters.

    After looking at the last picture of the story where the five little ducks are waddling to Mother duck the children will write a sentence telling what might happen next.

Standard 3: Critical Analysis and Evaluation

    I.As a continuous process the children will activate prior knowledge, predict, confirm

    2. The children will use the conceptual tools of semantics, syntax, graphophonics, and prior knowledge to establish meaning.

    3. The children will synthesis - summarize the partially read story at the beginning of the session and again at the end of the story.

    4. The children will apply prior knowledge by predicting the ending.

    5. The children will analyze the behavior of the ducks and the fox.

  1. 6.The children will evaluate behavior of ducks going off on their own and joining the fox.

Standard 4: Social Interaction

The children will discuss the behavior of the characters and compare it to their own Iives; they will sing an action song together. (Analysis)


1. Review words on chart: T asks questions about each word; have them chant, clap and write the word on the dry board.

2. Guided Reading of Five Little Ducks  While the children are reading the story silently the children will be observed to see how successfully they are using phonics, context, and pictures clues. Individual assistance in decoding will be given as the need arIses. (application)

3. Children will predict and then confirm their predictions by continuing to read Five Little Ducks to the end. (comprehension)

4. Children will compare (analysis) fox's relationship with the little ducks concentrating on the concept of strangers.(comprehension)

5. Write a sentence stating what could happen next after the ducks walk back to their mother. (application)

6. The children will discriminate the final sound of k and l; they will select a picture to answer a given question.

7. The short I sound will be reinforced utilizing the following:

    a. Magnetic boards will be use to reinforce the short I and -ick sound and to form new words with the ick sound. (knowledge)

    b. Use flip cards: for: quick recognition of change of onsets.

    c. Use slide strip through ship for quick recognition of new words.


1. Teacher observation

  1. 2.Cut up sentence strips and have children reassemble them. (knowledge)

Fun Follow-up: Change lyrics to  Six Little Ducks

  1. Recipe for Reading- fun activities

Tips: With each story read, develop new concept words prior to reading. Many suggestions are given on Working With Words. Responding to stories can take many different forms listed on “Literacy Activities & Centers” page. Suggestions for writing are found on  “Writing, Rubrics, & Assessment.”

Lesson Plans Below for the following:

Ant and the Grasshopper- fable; first

Big Race - fable L 1-2

Boa Constrictor by Shel Silverstein  poem

Drinking Gourd,The - historical fiction Level M 2-2/ 3-1 

Emily and Alice- narrative; second

Empty Pot -  narrative; third

Five Little Ducks -narrative in verse; emergent level

Great Kapok Tree - expository; third

Have You Seen Birds- poem/expository; second

If You Give a Mouse a Cookie- narrative; second

It’s an Armadillo- expository; third

Jamaica Tag-Along- narrative; second

Little Red Hen- narrative; first

Miss Nelson Is Missing Second Grade/ L / Rdg. Rec. L 20

No Difference - poem

Six Foolish Fishermen- narrative; first

We Are Best Friends- narrative L14   Gr. 1.7

Where the Wild Things Are-narrative, kindergarten read to

Wolves - expository;

Six Foolish Fisherman

Theme: water /fishing

Reading to Kindergarten Children


1. Share prior knowledge about rivers, oceans, and fishing by observing and discussing pictures of the ocean, river, fish, and showing

a rod and reel.

  1. 2.The children will understand the concept of foolish.

  2. 3.Children will explore and enjoy the way language works by listening and reciting jingles; by supplying predictable words in the story; and by creating new sentences from patterned sentences.

  3. 4.Students will respond to a story by answering comprehensive questions and as a result  improve expressive language abilities; they will accompany a song with actions and thus make the song part of themselves.


  1. 1.Observe various pictures of water and ask what the pictures are depicting. Contrast a river and an ocean. Read the story The Six Foolish Fishermen silently. Follow the reading with discussing the following:                                    

  2. 2.Knowledge - What does foolish mean?

  3. Analysis - Why were the fishermen considered foolish? Were they foolish to give away their fish to the boy? Can someone do something that may look foolish but not be a  fool?

  4. Comprehension- Why did each brother become so upset? How did the little boy help the brothers solve their problem?

  5. Application- How would you have helped the fishermen find the “missing brother?”

  6. Synthesis- Create a new ending for the story. Imagine that the little boy was not around to solve the problem. 

  7. Evaluation- Who was the most clever character in the story? What kind of personality did the boy have: mean,       kind,       smart?

  8. 3. Show the picture of the Nile River and sing the song learned previously, “The Lady and the Crocodile.”

  9. 4.Finger Play: Five Little Fish” Examine a rod and reel in order to make the last lines of the jingle, meaningful.

  10. 5.Sing and act out  “A Sailor Went to Sea, Sea, Sea” Fun Clapping Change the word sailor to a child’s name and “all he could see... was the bottom of the sea” to something else one could see in the sea.

  11. 6.Sing “A-Fishing We Will Go” (To the tune of “A Hunting We Will Go”) several times, change the name of the catch and what will rhyme with it each time.

  12. 7.Choose a poem from Sea Life Poems to reinforce the phonetic element. Place the poem of the week on the Poetry Table.

  13. 8.Other follow-up activities for the theme of water/fishing:  Ocean Poems.

                        The Big Race fable

Objective: Children will develop the concept of challenge and understand a narrative story structure.

The long a sound and the function of the final e will be reinforced.


Standard #1 Information and Understanding 

Standard # 3 Analysis & Evaluation     

  1. 1.Develop new voc. and background retrieving prior knowledge of Christopher Columbus and Abraham Lincoln. Compare Columbus and Lincoln and explain the meaning of  a challenge via the Venn Diagram. Display picture of a tortoise and a hare.

  2. 2.Display Narrative Chart. (Story structure lettered on poster board and laminated.) Fill in as the story progresses.

  3. 3.Children read silently The Big Race to discover the challenge and outcome. Be ready to help decode when necessary. Scoot around on your chair on wheels. If the students are subvocalizing you will know if they are encountering a problem. Remind them to read in their mind; if they argue that they have to move their lips, remind them to whisper. You may have to place the reader who is disturbing others in another area. This is the time to listen to take a running record- a few at a time.

  4. 4.Standard #4 Social Interaction     Discuss: When have you been like the hare?  the tortoise? Point out the importance of a challenge being coupled with intelligence. Is it wise to race a bike on an open road? etc.(Evaluation)

  5. 5.Reread The Big Race and find all the long a words in the text. As they are found the teacher lists them at the board or on the overhead. Reinforce the rule governing the long a. List all the words with a final e. Pronounce each one slowly. Make two columns; one for the long e sound and one for the silent e. As each word is pronounced ask: which column does it belong in? Are they all silent? What is the rule governing the final e?

  6. Analysis

  7. Place the words on cards with a magnet behind. Give each student a card and they are to place the cards under the correct heading:

  8. Long e sound        Short e sound        Silent e

  9. 6.Standard #2 Literary Response                                                              

  10. 7. Write a Class poem- an example below:
    The 5W poem is perfect for beginners! Each line answers a question.

Line 1:

Who: Rabbit

Line 2:

What: Running a Race

Line 3:

When: One afternoon

Line 4: 

Where: In the country

Line 5:

Why: Accepted a challenge

  1. 8.Standard #4 Social Interaction: Oral reread with a partner.

  2. 9.Listen and follow along to :The Fox and the Crow  Play Scripts

                      Where  the Wild Things Grow

Kindergarten  by Maurice Sendak

Theme: Monsters   Level J    2-1


  1. 1.Share prior knowledge about monsters by observing and discussing various pictures of  moppets, witches, and ghost.                             

  2. 2.The children will understand the concept of monsters and that pictures tell a story.

  3. 3.Children will explore and enjoy the way language works by listening and supplying predictable words in the story.

  4. 4. Students will respond to a story by answering comprehensive questions - improving expressive language abilities. 

  5. 5.They will accompany a song with actions. 

  6. Procedure:

  7. 1. Observe various pictures of monsters and discuss what the pictures have in common.

  8. 2. Introduce new voc,: Write, chant, clap words

  9. 2. Introduce Where the Wild Things Are; show center fold picture where Max is riding a "wild thing.” Ask questions about what is happening and what they think the book is about.

  10. 3. Continue predicting as pictures are discussed and the story is read, pausing for them to join in at repetitive and repetitive parts.

  11. 4. Apply the theme to themselves.  Have the children tell about when they were like monsters in the book.  Further discussion questions:                    

  12.     a. Why is Max sent to bed without supper? Do you think this is fair?Has this ever happened to you? How did you feel?

  13.     b. What grows in Max’s room that night? Would  you like this to happen in your room? Does Max like it? How can you tell? What would you do if you woke up one morning and your room was filled with trees, bushes, and vines?

  14.      c. How does Max get to where the wild things are? Is it possible to sail “through night and day and in and out of weeks and almost over a year? How?

  15.      d. What do the wild  things look like? Which one do you think looks the wildest? Why? Which one looks partly like a person? In what way?

  16.      e. How does Max feel when he first meets the wild things? How can you be sure?

  17.      f. What does Max do to the wild things?(Tames them.) What do you think you would have done? Why do the wild things make him their king?

  18.     g. Why does Max finally decide he wants to leave?

  19.     h. How does Max feel when he returns home? How can you tell? Why do you suppose he feels this way?

  20.     i. “Wild things are him. He got it out of his system and said, ‘Enough is enough.’ He was king of the wild thing- himself.”

  21. Max sent them off to bed without supper their supper just as it happened to himself.

  22.      j. Ruckus wasn’t enough; he was still alone. Why did Max stop them when they were ac ting crazy like he was?

  23. Were the monsters real? What is a monster? We all have a little of the monster in us when we misbehave

  24. Were you ever like a wild monster?

  25. 5. Form a definition of monster- knowledge; e.g.,  Acts in ways that is not human; an animal or plant that is abnormal; deviates from acceptable behavior; ugly, deformed, wicked, cruel, huge, gigantic, scary...

  26. 6. List qualities  (knowledge) of a good monster and those of a bad monster. Use a T chart to list. Explain the writing process. Ask where to begin writing, what does the word begin with etc.


    Friendly Monster:

    -Could be ugly, deformed;

    -Shape is different

    -Not nice to look at

    -Because of an accident may not be nice to look at but they are not bad

    -Dressing up for Halloween may make you look ugly but you are good.

    Bad Monster

    1. -Could look pretty but be bad;

    2. -Behavior is wild and unruly

    3. -When a stranger offers candy and ties to take children away they could be monsters-cruel.

    4. -Uncontrollable


  29. 7. Form a circle and dance the wild ruckus to rhythmic accompaniment.  Either use the iPod or computer to play the music.

  30. “Wild Things” inspired by the book can be downloaded from Using Music to Promote Learning.

  31. 8. Have the children act out a conversation between Max and his mother after he finds the soup waiting for him. Imagining

  32. 9. Write a class story about Max.

  33. 10. Construct a book for the children to  read:

  34.     Max can..........                Max can...........

  35.     Max can...........                Max can.........

  36. 11. Via the computer read: The Monster Book.

  37. 12. Props

  38. 14. Rumplestiltskin’s Theater: Where the Wild Things Are


It’s an Armadillo by  Bianca Lavies 2-2 expository text

Everything the children learn must be linked to prior knowledge.

Linking is a crucial tool. It helps him/her understand, remember, as well as retrieve. The movie “Hurricane”  indirectly exemplifies this. Lesra Martin, who wanted to go to college, couldn’t read and didn’t have a high school degree. Hurricane was a motivation to learn to read and write. It was the connection he made, that helped him to learn to read, write, and eventually become an attorney. “Hurricane” is based on a true story. “Over twenty years ago, LESRA MARTIN was trapped in the harrowing, violent streets of Bushwick. Illiterate and poor, he lived a life of little hope or promise. Through a series of incredible circumstances, he became the unlikely catalyst in the freeing of one of the U.S.'s most famous wrongly convicted prisoners. Along the way, he fought to change his own life, undergoing his own miraculous transformation into a university honor student, law school graduate, attorney, and inspirational speaker.”


  1. 1.Standard #1 Information and Understanding                                  Children will read non fiction to learn about the armadillo.

  2. 2.Develop new vocabulary via photos for nouns and act out verbs;

  3. 3.Standard # 3 Analysis & Evaluation                                            Develop higher order thinking skills  by asking open ended questions(comprehension); e.g.,

  4. What can we learn from the armadillo?Knowledge

  5. What is the most interesting part about the armadillo and why is it so interesting? Analysis

  6. Is it good to be an armadillo?Evaluation

  7. When would it not be good?  Evaluation

  8. Do you ever act like an armadillo? Analysis

  9. Would you like to be an armadillo? Why? Imagining

  10. Do you know anyone who is like the armadillo?Analysis


  1. 1.Develop vocabulary words; chant, clap words, and then place them on the word wall.

  2. 2.Fill in the K & L of the K-W-L chart

  3. 3.Read silently to discover facts about the armadillo.(Knowledge) Ask the open ended questions as stated above.

  4. 4.Complete the K-W-L chart.

  5. 5.Summarize (Comprehension) some of the facts with a class poem using the descriptive template.

  6. 6.Standard # 2  Literary Response

  7. Standard # 4 Social Interaction

  8. During Writing Workshop write a class poem using the suggestions on Poetry Class. e.g.; an acrostic





    D etc

Emily and Alice Again -narrative Gr. 2

Intended Learning Outcomes:

  1. 1.Reading the chapter “The Trade” from Emily and Alice Again, the children will develop the following higher order thinking skills:

  2.         Knowledge- develop further the concept of friendship

  3.         Synthesis- summarize 

  4.         Application- use prior knowledge to predict ending

  5.         Evaluation- state if Emily’s and Alice’s behavior was appropriate

  6.         Analysis- comparing and contrasting characters in two similar stories: Emily    and Alice  and A Bargain for Frances; and recalling a similar incident in their own lives.

  7. 2. Children will demonstrate competency in using the phonetic element of ar.

  8. 3. Children will demonstrate competency in spelling contractions with not, are, am, us, and have.

  9. Materials:  Text, bags of manipulative letters, dry boards & pens

  10. Procedure:

  11. 1. Develop new concept words.

  12. 1. The children will summarize(synthesis) what they have read by utilizing the Story Map and much more -scroll down.

  13. 2. Children will predict and then confirm (application)their predictions by continuing to read about Emily and Alice.

  14. 3. In the process of summarizing (synthesis) the children will recall the events leading up to the swapping of Emily’s baby sister; they will evaluate the actions of the girls.

  15. 4. They will develop a Character Map of Emily and Alice.

  16. 5. Children will compare (analysis) Emily and Alice via the Venn Diagram  or use drawn figures as illustrated below.

  17. Emily and Alice are contrasting characters in the story and lend themselves to teach antonyms & synonyms. Students list characteristics of both characters on separate slips of paper. With poster putty  on the back of the slips, the students place  the labels on one of the respective characters.  After all labels are tacked on,  the students, with the help of the teacher, finds a contrasting description / antonym on the opposing character. Line the descriptions in a column on each character placing them in close proximity for the students to observe that they line up as antonyms.

  18. 5. Dramatize the story


  20. 6. Write a character poem:

Line 1:  Name of character: e.g.,Emily
Line 2: Describing words...  
Line 3: Who loves...
Line 4: Who feels ... about ...
Line 5: Who needs...
Line 6: Who shares ...
Line 7: Who fears...
Line 8: Who'd like to see...
Line 9: Who dreams of ...
Line 10: Who ends up (emotion or situation at end of  the story)

  1. 7. Study the phonic element of ar. List words with ar found in the text. Use dry board to reinforce the phonetic element of ar; add onsets and endings to one of those ar words. Take the list and delete and add parts to the ar.

  2. Assessment: Intended learning outcomes will be assessed by observation and oral responses.

  3. Take a Running Record during silent reading time. Have three sections

  4. counted out- 100 words each- toward the beginning, the middle and toward the end. As you move about have a student whisper read while you take a Running Record.  Don’t have the student sitting next to each other read the same passage. They may listen to the whisper reading and it will give them an advantage over the one who read first.  


             The Ants and the Grasshopper              Gr. 2 Fable


Standard #1  Information and Understanding

Standard # 3 Analysis & Evaluation

1. Children demonstrate knowledge of the story: characters, problem and the solution. Story Mapping   Sing the song Story Map

2. Children will analyze and evaluate the story in regards to justice and kindness (beneficence).

3. Children will compare similarities of the turtle from a previous fable read and the ants’ determination, hardworking, persevering.  Via Venn Diagram

4. Children will analyze their own behavior and compare it to either the ants or the grasshopper via the Venn Diagram.

5. Children will imagine a different ending and evaluate both endings.


1. Develop background and vocabulary retrieving prior knowledge of the fable, "The Turtle and the Hare"

  1. 2.Turn the title into a question. Predict the answer; read to confirm; continue questioning, predicting, and confirming/disproving.

  2. 3. Use story map to discuss.

4. Evaluate the story in regards to justice and kindness.

5. Compare differences of the turtle and the ant via the Venn Diagram.

6. Children will analyze their own behavior and compare it with the turtle or the ants. Venn Diagram

7. Children will imagine a new ending, make a judgment as to the best ending and explain why they consider it the best ending.

8. Standard #2 Literary Response Children will write a new ending.

  1. Listen to other fables on line.

9. Standard # 4 Social Interaction

Sing The Ants Go Marching and march around the room - giving them a chance to move about. Cut the tempo in half or find another melody or just chant the song as they march around. Reinforce rhyming by isolating the rhyming words.

Reread with a partner.

10. Snow Poems for the Poetry Table plus other activities

Have You Seen Birds?- Joanna Oppenheim expository poem


1 Children will develop the concept (comprehension) of birds.

2. They will learn facts (knowledge)about birds through the media of a poem published in a big book: Have You Seen Birds

3. Children will bridge prior knowledge to the new knowledge using the KWL chart.

4. They will help develop a Cluster Word Map(knowledge) about birds.

5. Through inductive reasoning(synthesis) the children will discover the rule governing the inflection ing.


  1. 1.The children will bridge prior knowledge  to the new knowledge by stating facts they know about birds and recording them on the KWL chart under K.

  2. 2.Develop new concept words.

  3. 3.After the first reading they will check to see if their contributions were in the poem.

  4. 4.Read the poem the second time ( Depending upon their reading ability will depend if the students read the poem silently the first time or listen to the poem.) With the second reading the children will chime in when they feel comfortable.

  5. 5.Develop the semantic map categorizing (analysis) actions of birds which are endemic to seasons and habitats.

  6. 6.Children will analyze groups of action words and  their endings to determine how they are alike and how they are different: they will then formulate a rule governing the inflection ing.

  7. 7.Children will have knowledge of the term bird and answer the question: Are birds important to us?

  8. 8.Take a vote on which bird they like best and write a class poem about that bird using the 5W pattern. Write another poem writing about various birds in the story using the structure “Down by the Bay” as suggested on Poetry Teacher .

  9. 9.Use a poem from the Seasons site to reinforce a phonic sound.

  10. For example: Run off a poem and have the children high light all the words with er sound or  the long i sound. Provide the children with high lighter.

  11. Place the poem on a transparency and have children come up and

  12. high light all the er words or what ever sound that needs reinforcement.

  13. More bird poems to reinforce ir, er, ur.

Follow up readings: Merry Month of Birds; Birds, Birds, Everywhere

The Great Gray Owl  and the story of John Audabon, “The Man Who Painted Birds.”

Birds - poems for the Poetry Table ; take home poetry  Bird Poems

Kindergarten-grade 3 / Ages 5-8

Reviewed by Fran Newman.

Invaluable for environmental studies units on birds...

For that is what this is, an incredibly beautiful book about every kind of bird. Oppenheim crafts phrases to describe birds according to size, season, activity, time of day, location: town, farm, field, marsh, sea, lake, and high-flying sky. And listen to the language: "Have you seen autumn birds? Visiting-the-feeder birds, following-the-leader birds, leaving-in-a-string birds, coming-back-in-spring birds." Or: "Do you know sea birds? Twisting, drifting, swiftly shifting, searching, skimming, scooping, lifting, soaring by the shore."

But, oh, the illustrations! The children and I marvel at the intricacy of Barbara Reid's plasticized full-color layouts. Each page is a celebration. Words cannot fully describe their magnificence. If this book does not win more than one award, then there is no justice. Well done, everyone involved.”

  1. Birds Informational, Online Activities and Print Outs

Birds Enchanted Learning

Birds Nat’l Geo

If You Give a Mouse a Cookie

Level K  2-1


I Children will enjoy the story: If You Give a Mouse  a Cookie.

2, The children will become aware of the sequence of events.   Indirectly the children will be exercising logical thinking as regards cause and effect.

3. The children will analyze and evaluate the relationship of the mouse and the boy. The children will realize that the boy’s act of kindness was done for no other reason except that it was the right thing to do; the boy wasn’t looking for the mouse to repay him. Children will make analogies between the relationship of the boy and mouse to real situations e.g., adult/child, friends, brother/sister.

  1. 4.Just  as there is a sequence of events in the story there is also a sequence of events in developing a friendship. Children will recall how they made friends. Analysis


  1. 1.Knowledge: Children will place pictures which were taken from the story (Scan them into the computer and run them off.) and place them in the order they think or predict the events will take place.

  2. 2.Develop new concept words.

3. Children will read silently while the teacher helps individuals with decoding problems.

4, Application The children will make the necessary corrections for sequential order by placing the pictures in correct order.

  1. 5.The children will be given a set of labels and pictures to match with a partner or individually.

  2. 6.Knowledge The labels will be scrambled and the pictures taken away. The children will put the labels in order. ( Reinforce the concept of sequence and new vocabulary.)

  3. 7.Analyze and evaluate the relationship of the mouse and the boy via a Venn Diagram.

  4. 8.Standard #4 Socialization Interaction

  5. Children will pair off and reread orally.  Take a Running Record at this time.                                                                                                         

  6. 9. Pair children off and write a story using two new characters patterning their story after If You Give a Mouse a Cookie.(Application)

                                             No Difference

                                                                by Shel Silverstein

Small as a peanut
Big as a giant,
We're all the same size
When we turn off the light.
Red black or orange,
Yellow or white
We all look the same
When we turn off the light.
So maybe the way
To make everything right
Is for God to just reach out
And turn off the light!


     1. The students will develop an understanding of the concept of comparison- superlatives. When we have a root word and add the suffix er or est this creates degrees of likenesses and differences; e.g., soft, softer, softest.

     2. The students will appreciate the poem “No Difference” and discover what Silverstein is comparing.


Link all new knowledge to the children’s experience; use the value of money to develop the concept of comparison/ superlatives.

  1. 1.The students will be introduced to the concept of comparison by using money, making them realize that comparison examines both differences and likenesses.                                                        Give every one a nickel for doing a job; e.g., collecting papers but give one student a quarter for doing the same job. The children will cry out that’s not fair. Bring out the fact that the children are comparing the value of a nickel and a quarter.

  2. 2.Children will  listen to the poem “No Difference” by Shel Silverstein and note comparisons made. Children will read the poem on the overhead and again from the paper where it was run off.

  3. 3.Students will observe illustrated comparisons to reinforce the concept of comparison;e.g., 3 different:

  4. sizes: pencils, balls, boxes etc.

  5. textures: cotton, golf ball, rubber ball

  6. sounds: different size bells, high voice, low voice bottles with different amounts of water,

  7. colors etc.

  8. 4.Use computer and projector to flash onto the white board the Internet site for comparisons.

  9. 5.Students will discuss the comparison made in the poem.

  10. 6.“No Difference” on You Tube


Students will work with a partner to discuss comparisons with objects in a bag. They will explain to the group the differences and likenesses of the objects.  They will select a word from a list at the board to be applied in their comparisons.

English Teachers Network Lesson Plan for “No Difference.”

                 Miss Nelson Is Missing Level L

                                                Second Grade


Children will enjoy Miss Nelson Is Missing.

1. Standard #1: Information and Understanding

   Comprehension:  Children will understand the concept of community, beneficence- caring, and justice- the need for rules based on fairness.

   Knowledge: The children will learn the story structure of the  narrative and the physical features of a shark and its habitat.

     The children will extract meaning from the text using prior knowledge; viz., experience along with context clues, phonics, pictures, and structural analysis.

  1. 2.Standard #3 Critical Analysis and Evaluation :                          

  2. They will analyze and list characteristics of Miss Nelson and Miss Swamp, and the children.

    Evaluate- comprehension- The children will evaluate the children’s behavior with the traits of Miss Nelson and Miss Swamp. They will evaluate the role of Miss Nelson and Miss Swamp.


    Synthesis: They will recognize the cause and effect of kind and rude behavior; they will recognize the cause and effect of harsh treatment.

   Application: They will evaluate (make judgements) of actions of both teacher and students. Do they think Miss Nelson was right in what she did? Why or why not? Were the children fair to Miss Nelson? Why or why not? etc.

Knowledge: The children will note the sequence of events: Miss Nelson was good; children were bad. Miss Nelson was harsh and the children were nice.

    Synthesize/ summarize:  (pull elements together) the negative effect of breaking rules and the positive effect of obeying rules.

    Fill in Character Trait Map  Write a poem using the following template:

Title: Feeling

  1. 1.Three verbs

  2. 2.Adverb

  3. 3.Who has the feeling

    Analysis: They will compare the story of Miss Nelson Is Missing to other stories about school children and their teacher via the Venn Diagram.

    They will “brainstorm” characteristics of a community and list kinds of communities; e.g., family, classroom, school.

Standard #2 Literary Response and Expression

Standard #4 Social Interaction

    Develop listening skills by listening to rhymes,songs, stories read aloud.

    Develop oral language through choral reading, reading aloud with a partner, participating in discussions, role-playing, chanting verses and poems.

    Develop the sense of rhythm by listening, reading, and singing stories, poems, and finger plays.

    They will have fun changing the words in the lyrics of Miss Lucy Had a Baby to something like:

Miss Nelson had a classroom                

With Jims and Johns and Amys      (Morrises, Elvises, and Phobes)      

They got all rough and roudy               

And  wouldn’t do their work.

She kept her cool manner  

She didn’t raise her voice

She didn’t call the principal

She didn’t look annoyed.

Miss Swamp came in the next day

With a rough and tough demeanor 

She ordered their attention 

She ordered them to work   

The children wanted Miss Nelson                                                             

They did not want Miss Swamp                                                               

They promised they would do their work 

If Miss Nelson would please return.


Write a poem with Coral Rumble on Poetry Class

    Respond creatively through role-playing. Ask the students to name the main characters in the story. Develop the skill of communicating through writing, puppets, and illustrating with paint or crayons.


Follow Up: Miss Nelson Returns 

A Pocket Full of Nonsense by James Marshall

Read Miss Nelson Is Back via the computer

Boa Constrictor

Boa Constrictor



Oh, I'm being eaten

By a boa constrictor,

A boa constrictor,

A boa constrictor,

I'm being eaten by a boa constrictor,

And I don't like it--one bit.

Well, what do you know?

It's nibblin' my toe.

Oh, gee,

It's up to my knee.

Oh my,

It's up to my thigh.

Oh, fiddle,

It's up to my middle.

Oh, heck,

It's up to my neck.

Oh, dread,

It's upmmmmmmmmmmffffffffff . . .

Shel Silverstein


Standard #1: Information and Understanding

Children will learn the habits and habitat of the Boa Constrictor; develop an appreciation of poetry; and in turn use the poem to develop new concepts, new vocabulary, fluency, and an enjoyment of poetry and working together.

Standard #2 Literary Response: Choral Reading and Writing

Standard #3 Analysis and Evaluate:

Standard #4 Social Interaction


Children will


  1. 1.Information & Understanding: Via the KWL chart children will

  2. state what they know about the Boa Constrictor and what they would like to know. 

  3. Study the poem posted on a transparency or poster board. Write, chant, clap words and look for patterns.

    Search for words for the word wall. Select 5 words for the Rhyming

     Word Wall which have useful patterns.

2. Analysis: read the poem and analyze their predictions and discuss the meaning. The literary tools of alliteration, rhyme, and descriptive  .

words, and words they like will be discussed.

Discuss the part they like and what the author has done well.

Repetitive words and lines and the predictable pattern.

Recall personal experiences that relate to the poem. a frightening experience with an animal.

Compare: Via the Venn Diagram, The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash by Trinka Hacks

  1. 3.Literary Response and Social Interaction

Give out individual copies and practice alternating reading the entire group and then with a partner the poem in various ways.

I'm being eaten by a boa constrictor
I'm being eaten by a boa constrictor
I'm being eaten by a boa constrictor
And I don't like it at all!

Oh no! (Oh no!)
It's up to my
toe! (It's up to my toe!)
Oh gee! (Oh gee!)
It's up to my
knee! (It's up to my knee!)
Oh fiddle! (Oh fiddle!)
It's up to my
middle! (It's up to my middle!)
Oh heck! (Oh heck!)
It's up to my
neck! (It's up to my neck!)
Oh dread, oh dread! It's up to my ...
(song ends)

Song scale down to the video

Recall personal experiences that relate to the poem. Analysis

Brainstorm related writing ideas e.g. being bitten by a pet, having

a frightening experience with an animal. Write about their experience with an animal.

Favorite Folders: Place the  poem into their Poetry Folder. A few minutes each day the children will work with a partner to read and enjoy the favorites of their choice from the folders, alternating voice patterns.

Dramatize poem

Other follow-up activities: Other snake poetry, puppets, finger plays, flannelboards, craft and books

Books: The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash by Trink Hakes

The Drinking Gourd- historical fiction


Standard # 1. Information & Understanding

Knowledge: develop an understanding of the meaning of Underground Railroad, slavery, gourd, Canada, riverbank, hoofbeat, oars, and the term “Big Dipper.

Develop the concepts of kindness (beneficence,) justice, autonomy (freedom.)

Standard # 3. Develop the skill of reasoning (inferences & predict out come;  draw conclusions- summarize; reflect & evaluate decisions made.

Standard #2. Literary Response and Expression

Standard #4 Social Interaction.


  1. Day 1 

1. Develop background knowledge of the Underground Railroad and slavery.

Use new vocabulary words to label pertinent pictures. The Internet can provide pictures which can be placed on a transparency and can be run off. Pictures can also be scanned into the computer and placed on a transparency.

  1. 2. Predict what  The Drinking Gourd will be about and list ideas at board; note the illustrations at the bottom of the first four pages and discuss.

  2. 3. Turn the title into a question and read silently to find the answers.

  3. 4. Read chapter 1 and discuss. Note the Quakers are a peace loving people; they were against slavery and against war. Note that Tommy  broke a rule-reference will be made to that fact after reading the last chapter.

  4. 5. Fill in the character and setting of the story chart. Use a transparency or the computer to retrieve it quickly the next day.

  5. 6. Make a sketch of the most important idea of the chapter.

  6. Day 2.

  7. 1. Briefly review chapter 1 via the story chart.

  8. 2. Guide reading of chapter 2

  9.     a. Turn title into a question: predict answer and read to find the answer to the question and the meaning of “drinking gourd” and “runaways.”

  10.      b. Develop an awareness of a technique authors use in writing factual material: comparing & contrasting. Via the Venn Diagram compare and contrast the two boys and two adults: one child and adult are white and free. The other child and adult are black and are slaves. Ask how they are alike; draw conclusions.

  11. c. Sketch the most important idea of the chapter.

  12. Day 3. Guided reading for Chapter 3

  13. 1. Hand out sketches of yesterday. Students will turn to the one next t o them and tell one another about the picture each drew.

  14. 2. Read chapter 3: question, predict, confirm reading silently.

  15. 3. Summarize the chapter; add information to the story chart.

  16. 5. Oral reread with a partner.

  17. 6. Sketch the main idea of chapter 3.

  18. Day 4 & 5

  19. Read chapters 4 and 5- follow the procedure as on day 3.

  20. Day 6.

  21. 1. From the daily sketches, select pictures for sequential order.

  22. 2. Summarize the story via a story map.

  23. 3. Develop a semantic map of slavery, the Underground Railroad, and Harriet Tubman.

  24. 4. Reread with a partner their favorite section.

  25. 5. View Harriet Tubman on You Tube and the Spirit of Harriet Tubman

  26. Day 7. Read Silverstein’s poem “No Difference” and a poem of Harriet Tubman “The Whippoorwill Calls” by Beverly McLoughland.

Read the title of the poem aloud.

Ask what they think the poem will be about.

Read a poem and ask again if they predicted correctly. List key concepts.

Read the poem a second and third time and write down what they heard.  

Read the poem together - use a marker if necessary.

Read the poem as a choral piece assigning parts to various people/sub groups.

Have them read their favorite part, line etc. Use the poem to teach a phonetic element, part of speech etc. and at the end of the day take the poem home.

  1. Use the Venn Diagram to compare.

Follow-up Connectors:

North Star Activities

Harriet’s Underground Railroad/ Teachers at Random

Circular Story- Sequence and Cause and Effect

I don’t know the author of this chart; if it was you I will give you credit.

Level 19      Gr. 2.2

Pictures taken on a farm in Minn.

Jamaica Tag-Along

Objectives: Children will construct meaning by responding to the

                                 of “Jamaica Tag-Along.”                                                           

                                 Expand the concept of Interdependences: we  

                                 are  social beings and need one another to work

                                 and play with; we are more alike than different. we

                                  do not like to e rejected; we want to be part of the group.                                                                                                                             

Expand the concept of justice: do unto others what you want done to you.

They will analyze and evaluate Jamaica’s “tagging-alongs” and compare them to personal situations.

Children will synthesize the lesson Jamaica learned: do unto others what you want them to do to you.


-Develop background by retrieving prior knowledge analyzing the Story Map developed prior to the day’s session.

-Children will compare personal experiences with that of Jamaica and analyze their own behavior:

  1. 1.How did Jamaica feel? Angry, lonely, sad...?

  2. 2.Have you ever felt like Jamaica: We all want someone to talk with , play, and be with, even dogs do...

  3. 3.Have you ever had someone who wanted to play with you and you said no?

  4. 4.What made Jamaica change her mind? The very thing Ossie did to her she did to Berto; she felt bad that she hurt his feelings...

  5. 5.What lesson did Jamaica learn? 

-Fill out another Story Map about their personal experience modeling it after Jamaica’s story and write about the lesson they learned.

-Children will encode their personal story.

-Children will share their stories during the next session.

More Suggested Stories from the Internet to Teach Comprehension/Higher Order Thinking Skills

Making inferences:ƒirst Animals Should Definitely Not Wear Clothing

Making inferences: second: Too Many Tamales M. Baker

Making inferences: third: Numerous Books with Mini Lessons Over a Period of a Month

Main Idea/Successful Summarizing Swimmy

Main idea/  Summarize The Great Kapok Tree/Ed World

Main Idea The Great Kapok Tree

Cause & Effect: Why Mosquitoes Buzz inPeople’s Ears

Sequencing first:The Very Hungry Caterpillar to help students practice story sequencing.

  1.                 Sequencing: Lyle, Lyle, Crocodile

  2.                 Sequencing: The Hare and the Tortoise

Comparison: Text to Text: Chrysanthemum, Julius, The Baby of the World, Owen, Sheila Rai the Brave

A Step-by-step Program for Developing Higher Level Skills in Struggling Readers

Thomas G. Gunning

HIgher Order Thinking Skills/King, Goodson, Rohani

Constructed by Mary DeFalco

Up dated 4/8/18

“The pages of each child’s tomorrow begin with us today, and it’s quite challenging preparing someone for the unknown.” Author Unknown


How to Build Thinking Skills

Weekly Reader ’91

..”what really matters: the four C's: critical thinking; clear communication; collaboration; creativity, and curiosity.”

College Professor, Scott I. Newstok 8/29/16

Comparing and analyzing of information and knowledge are only two higher order thinking skills of many others. Information and knowledge are on the lower range of Bloom’s taxonomy. Einstein,also, stressed the importance of developing the imagination.

  1. Teaching Schema to Gr. 1-& 2

  2. Skills of the 21st C: Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills


“It is hard to imagine a teacher or school leader who is not aware of the importance of teaching higher-order thinking skills to prepare young men and women to live in the 21st Century. However, the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are taught and assessed continues to be an area of debate, with many teachers and employers expressing concern that young people ‘cannot think’. “


                    Teaching phonics via Level F and G


Story: What a Mess! Level F

Phonological Awareness: find rhyming pairs; make up new sentences with rhyming pairs

Phonics: st          Family: -air          HFW / spelling:  your

Writing: I’ll fix your ____________,

and I’ll fix your___________.


Story: Too Big for Me Level F

Phonological Awareness: form new words with -ay  ; use magnetic letters

Phonics: tch      y (long I)         Find ee words and add them to the ee chart. 

Word Family   -ay  ; use magnetic letters

HGW: too

Writing:  Write about what is  much too big.


Story:  Grumpy Elephant Level G Discuss and read silently

Phonics: ph (use chart)      Word Family: -ump; make –ump flip cards.

HFW/ spelling: play     feel        along        came

Write and innovation of Grumpy.


Story: Horace Level G Discuss and read silently

Phonics: or  Say various words and the students listen for the or words. Find words in the story

Word Family: -ight  use magnetic letters and make substitutions;

read poem and underline ight words.

Word Structure : can’t           HFW/ spelling: so        oh         right

Writing: Write about what they would do if Horace was their dog.


Story: The Pumpkin   Level G Read a section at a time and answer questions.

Phonological awareness: Read p.2 and listen for the rhyming words.

Sing: Apples and Banana  - change the vowel each verse

Phonics: pl      Word Family: -all                   Structure: syllabication